Q&Aのもくじ:2011-03-26 - caguirofie
【Q:Bedeutung と Sinn との違いは?】

bragelone: BedeutungとSinn また意味と意義

一か所で長くなるのを嫌って こちらに移動しました。

いま書こうとしていることは 次の一点です。

(あ‐1) ニーチェの思想には意義が無い。
(あ‐2) ニーチェの思想には意味が無い。


(あ‐3) 『アンチ・クリスト』には 意義もないが 意味もない。あたかもあの『マイン・カンプフ』と同じように文章が支離滅裂であって まとまった意味すら取れない。

つまり (あ‐2)の言おうとするところは ただしくはこうである。:
(あ‐2a ) ニーチェの思想には 『アンチ・クリスト』を除いて言っていることの意味はあるが 摂って滋養とするべき意義はない。

おそらく・ただし この《摂って滋養とするべき意義はない》の《意義》を《意味》に代えてもだいたい同じ意味で通用すると思われる。
たぶん 《意味》にかんする否定文では 《意味はない》≒《意義はない》となるのだと考えられます。よいわるいを判定する以前の判断においてその意味がないとなれば 意義もないことになる。

ドイツ語やさらにはほかの言語ではどうなのか? になるでしょうか。

sense (n.)

特に原義が 注目に値しますね。つまり すでに資料をいただいたごとく:

語源  sin(中高ドイツ語、古高ドイツ語)
原義  Gang(歩くこと)、Reise(旅)、Weg(道)


PIE root: *sent- "to go"
(cognates: Old High German  sinnan "to go, travel, strive after, have in mind, perceive,"
German:  Sinn "sense, mind,"
Old English:  sið "way, journey,"
Old Irish:  set,
Welsh:  hynt "way").

c.1400, "faculty of perception,"
also "meaning, import, interpretation" (especially of Holy Scripture),
from Old French sens "one of the five senses; meaning; wit, understanding" (12c.)
and directly from Latin sensus "perception, feeling, undertaking, meaning,"
from sentire "perceive, feel, know,"
probably a figurative use of a literally meaning "to find one's way," or "to go mentally,"
from PIE root *sent- "to go"
(cognates: Old High German sinnan "to go, travel, strive after, have in mind, perceive,"
German Sinn "sense, mind,"
Old English sið "way, journey,"
Old Irish set,
Welsh hynt "way").

Application to any one of the external or outward senses (touch, sight, hearing, etc.) in English first recorded 1520s.

A certain negro tribe has a special word for "see;" but only one general word for "hear," "touch," "smell," and "taste." It matters little through which sense I realize that in the dark I have blundered into a pig-sty. In French "sentir" means to smell, to touch, and to feel, all together.
[Erich M. von Hornbostel, "Die Einheit der Sinne" ("The Unity of the Senses"), 1927]

Meaning "that which is wise" is from c.1600.
Meaning "capacity for perception and appreciation" is from c.1600
(as in sense of humor, attested by 1783, sense of shame, 1640s).

mean (v.)

"intend, have in mind,"
Old English: mænan "to mean, intend, signify; tell, say; complain, lament,"
from West Germanic: *mainijan
(cognates: Old Frisian: mena "to signify,"
Old Saxon: menian "to intend, signify, make known,"
Dutch: menen,
German: meinen "think, suppose, be of the opinion"),
from PIE: *meino- "opinion, intent"
(cognates: Old Church Slavonic: meniti "to think, have an opinion,"
Old Irish: mian "wish, desire,"
Welsh: mwyn "enjoyment"),
perhaps from root *men- "think" (see mind (n.)).
Conversational question you know what I mean? attested by 1834.

mind (n.)

late 12c., from Old English: gemynd "memory, remembrance, state of being remembered; thought, purpose; conscious mind, intellect, intention,"
Proto-Germanic: *ga-mundiz
(cognates: Gothic: muns "thought," munan "to think;"
Old Norse: minni "mind;"
German: Minne (archaic) "love," originally "memory, loving memory"),
from PIE roo:t *men- (1) "think, remember, have one's mind aroused,"
with derivatives referring to qualities of mind or states of thought
(cognates: Sanskrit: matih "thought," munih "sage, seer;"
Greek: memona "I yearn," mania "madness," mantis "one who divines, prophet, seer;"
Latin: mens "mind, understanding, reason," memini "I remember," mentio "remembrance;"
Lithuanian: mintis "thought, idea,"
Old Church Slavonic: mineti "to believe, think,"
Russian: pamjat "memory").

Meaning "mental faculty" is mid-14c.
"Memory," one of the oldest senses, now is almost obsolete except in old expressions such as bear in mind, call to mind.
Mind's eye "remembrance" is early 15c.
Phrase time out of mind is attested from early 15c.
To pay no mind "disregard" is recorded from 1916, American English dialect.
To have half a mind to "to have one's mind half made up to (do something)" is recorded from 1726.
Mind-reading is from 1882.