Internet Security Essay | Bartleby
DEFINITION: To shine (and in many derivatives, “sky, heaven, god”). Zero-grades *dyu- and *diw-.
Derivatives include Tuesday, divine, jovial, Jupiter, diary, dismal, journey, and psychedelic.
I. Basic form *dyeu-, Jove, the name of the god of the bright sky, head of the Indo-European pantheon.

  • 1. Jove, jovial; Sangiovese, from Latin Iovis, Jupiter, or Iov-, stem of Iuppiter, Jupiter.
  • 2. July, from Latin Iulius, “descended from Jupiter” (name of a Roman gens), from derivative *iou-il-.
  • 3. Vocative compound *dyeu-pater, “O father Jove” (*pater-, father; see pater-). Jupiter, from Latin Iuppiter, Iupiter, head of the Roman pantheon.
  • 4. Dione, Zeus; dianthus, Dioscuri, from Greek Zeus (genitive Dios), Zeus.

II. Noun *deiwos, god, formed by e-insertion to the zero-grade *diw- and suffixation of (accented) -o-.

  • 1a. Tiu, Tuesday, from Old English Tiw (genitive Twes), god of war and sky;
    • b. Tyr, from Old Norse Tyr, sky god. Both a and b from Germanic *Tiwaz.
  • 2. deism, deity, Deus, joss; adieu, deific, from Latin deus, god.
  • 3. diva, divine, from Latin divus, divine, god.
  • 4. Dis, Dives, from Latin dves, rich (< “fortunate, blessed, divine”).
  • 5. Suffixed zero-grade form *diw-yo-, heavenly. Diana, from Latin Diana, moon goddess.
  • 6. Devi; deodar, Devanagari, from Sanskrit deva, god, and deva-, divine.
  • 7. Asmodeus, from Avestan daeva-, spirit, demon.

III. Variant *dye- (< *dye-). dial, diary, diet2, dismal, diurnal, journal, journey; adjourn, circadian, meridian, postmeridian, quotidian, sojourn, from Latin dies, day.
IV. Variant *dei-. psychedelic, woolly adelgid, from Greek delos (< *deyalos), clear. (Pokorny 1. dei- 183.)


Cuban Revolution Essay | Bartleby
DEFINITION: To call, invoke. Oldest form *heu(e)-, becoming *gheu(e)- in centum languages.
Suffixed zero-grade form *ghu-to-, “the invoked,” god.

  • a. god, from Old English god, god;
  • b. giddy, from Old English gydig, gidig, possessed, insane, from Germanic *gud-iga-, possessed by a god;
  • c. götterdämmerung, from Old High German got, god. a–c all from Germanic *gudam, god. (Pokorny hau- 413.)


god | Search Online Etymology Dictionary
O.E. god "supreme being, deity,"

  • from P.Gmc. *guthan (cf. Du. god, Ger. Gott, O.N. guð, Goth. guþ),
  • from PIE *ghut- "that which is invoked" (cf. Skt. huta- "invoked," an epithet of Indra),
  • from root *gheu(e)- "to call, invoke."
  • But some trace it to PIE *ghu-to- "poured,"
    • from root *gheu- "to pour, pour a libation" (source of Gk. khein "to pour," khoane "funnel" and khymos "juice;" also in the phrase khute gaia "poured earth," referring to a burial mound). "
  • Given the Greek facts, the Germanic form may have referred in the first instance to the spirit immanent in a burial mound" [Watkins]. Not related to good.
  • Originally neut. in Gmc., the gender shifted to masc. after the coming of Christianity.
  • O.E. god was probably closer in sense to L. numen.
  • A better word to translate deus might have been P.Gmc. *ansuz, but this was only used of the highest deities in the Gmc. religion, and not of foreign gods, and it was never used of the Christian God. It survives in Eng. mainly in the personal names beginning in Os-.

"I want my lawyer, my tailor, my servants, even my wife to believe in God, because it means that I shall be cheated and robbed and cuckolded less often. ... If God did not exist, it would be necessary to invent him." [Voltaire]

  • First record of Godawful "terrible" is from 1878; God speed as a parting is from c.1470. God-fearing is attested from 1835. God bless you after someone sneezes is credited to St. Gregory the Great, but the pagan Romans (Absit omen) and Greeks had similar customs.