DEFINITION: Also bheu-. To be, exist, grow.
Derivatives include be, husband, imp, physics, future, neighbor, and beam.
I. Extended forms *bhwiy(o)-, *bhwi-.

  • 1. be; forebear, from Old English beon, to be, from Germanic *biju, I am, will be.
  • 2. fiat, from Latin fieri, to become.
  • 3. Possibly suffixed form *bhwi-lyo-, seen by some as the source of Latin filius, son, but this is more likely from dhe(i)-.

II. Lengthened o-grade form *bhow-.

  • a. bondage, bound4; bustle1, husband, from Old Norse bua, to live, prepare, and buask, to make oneself ready (-sk, reflexive suffix; see s(w)e-);
  • b. Bauhaus, from Old High German buan, to dwell;
  • c. booth, from Middle English bothe, market stall, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Danish both, dwelling, stall. a–c from Germanic *bowan.

III. Zero-grade form *bhu-.

  • 1a. build, from Old English byldan, to build, from bold, dwelling, house, from Germanic *buthla-;
  • b. boodle, from Middle Dutch bodel, riches, property, from alternate Germanic form *bothla.
  • 2. physic, physics, physio-, physique, –phyte, phyto-, phyton; apophysis, diaphysis, diphyodont, epiphysis, euphuism, hypophysis, imp, Monophysite, neophyte, periphyton, symphysis, tracheophyte, from Greek phuein, to bring forth, make grow, phutos, phuton, a plant, and phusis, growth, nature.
  • 3. Suffixed form *bhu-ta-. a. eisteddfod, from Welsh bod, to be; b. bothy, from Old Irish both, a hut.
  • 4. Suffixed form *bhu-tu-. future, from Latin futurus, “that is to be,” future.

IV. Zero-grade form *bhu- (< *bhua-).

  • 1a. bower1, from Old English bur, “dwelling space,” bower, room;
  • b. neighbor, from Old English gebur, dweller (ge-, collective prefix; see kom);
  • c. Boer, boor, from Middle Dutch gheboer, ghebuer, peasant. a–c all from Germanic *buram, dweller, especially farmer.
  • 2. byre, from Old English byre, stall, hut, from Germanic *burjam, dwelling.
  • 3. bylaw, from a Scandinavian source akin to Old Norse byr, settlement, from Germanic *buwi-.
  • 4. Suffixed form *bhulo-. phyle, phyletic, phylum; phylogeny, from Greek phulon, tribe, class, race, and phule, tribe, clan.

V. Zero-grade reduced suffixal form *-bhw-, in Latin compounds.

  • 1. Latin dubius, doubtful, and dubitare, to doubt, from *du-bhw-io- (see dwo-).
  • 2. Latin probus, upright, from *pro-bhw-o-, “growing well or straightforward” (see per1).
  • 3. Latin superbus, superior, proud, from *super-bhw-o-, “being above” (see uper).

VI. Possibly Germanic *baumaz (and *bagmaz), tree (? < “growing thing”).

  • a. beam, from Old English beam, tree, beam;
  • b. boom2, from Middle Dutch boom, tree;
  • c. bumpkin1, bumpkin2, from Flemish boom, tree. (Pokorny bheu- 146.)

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