/ n /



DEFINITION: Name. Oldest form *1no(&schwa3)-m, zero-grade form *1(3)-men-.

  1. name, from Old English nama, name, from Germanic *namon-.
  2. nominal, nominate, noun; agnomen, binomial, cognomen, denominate, ignominy, misnomer, nomenclator, nuncupative, praenomen, pronoun, renown, from Latin nomen, name, reputation.
  3. onomastic, –onym, –onymy; allonym, anonymous, antonomasia, eponym, eponymous, euonymus, heteronymous, homonymous, matronymic, metonymy, onomatopoeia, paronomasia, paronymous, patronymic, pseudonym, synonymous, from Greek onoma, onuma, name (assimilated from enuma, preserved in proper names in Laconian).
  4. moniker, from Old Irish ainm, name.

〔 1 3 などの数字は 入力できない音標文字。〕


Derivatives include naughty, never, nothing, annul, nice, annihilate, negligee, deny, and renegade.

  1. a. naught, naughty, neither, never, nill, no1, no2, none, nor1, not, nothing, from Old English ne, not, and na, no;
    • b. nay, from Old Norse ne, not;
    • c. nix2, from Old High German ne, ni, not. a–c all from Germanic *ne-, *na-.
  2. annul, nefarious, nescience, neuter, nice, null, nullify, nullipara, from Latin ne-, not, and nullus, none (ne- + ullus, any; see oi-no-).
  3. nimiety, from Latin nimis, too much, excessively, very (< *ne-mi-s, “not little”; *mi-, little; see mei-2).
  4. nihilism, nihility, nil; annihilate, from Latin nihil, nil, nothing, contracted from nihilum, nothing (< *ne-hilum, “not a whit, nothing at all”; hilum, a thing, trifle; origin unknown).
  5. non-; nonplus, nonsuit, from Latin non, not (< *ne-oinom, not one thing”; *oino-, one; see oi-no-).
  6. nisi, from Latin nisi, unless (ni, not, from *nei + si, if; see swo-).
  7. a. neglect, negligee, negotiate, from Latin prefix neg-, not;
    • b. negate; abnegate, deny, renegade, renege, from Latin negare, to deny. Both a and b from Italic *nek, not.
  8. nepenthe, from Greek ne-, not.
  9. Zero-grade combining form *n-.
    • a. (i) un-1, from Old English un-, not; (ii) Zugunruhe, from Old High German un-, not. Both (i) and (ii) from Germanic *un-;
    • b. in-1, from Latin in-, not;
    • c. a-1, an-, from Greek a-, an-, not;
    • d. ahimsa, from Sanskrit a-, an-, not;
    • e. compound *u-mi-to- (see mer-).


DEFINITION: New. Related to nu-.
Derivatives include neon and nova.

  1. Suffixed form *new-yo-.
    • a. new, from Old English neowe, niwe, new;
    • b. Nynorsk, span-new, from Old Norse nyr, new. Both a and b from Germanic *neuja-.
  2. Basic form *newo-. neo-, neon, neoteric; misoneism, from Greek newos, neos, new. + Suffixed form *new-aro-. aneroid, from Greek neron, water, from neros, fresh (used of fish and of water), contracted from nearos, young, fresh.
  3. Basic form *newo-. nova, novation, novel1, novel2, novelty, novice, novillada, novillero; innovate, renovate, from Latin novus, new.
  4. Suffixed form *new-er-ko-. novercal, from Latin noverca, stepmother (< “she who is new”)


DEFINITION: Boat. Oldest form *ne2u-, colored to *na2u-, contracted to *nau- (before consonants) and *naw- (before vowels).






DEFINITION: To bind, tie.

  1. O-grade form *nod-.
    • a. net1, from Old English net(t), a net, from Germanic *nati-;
    • b. nettle, from Old English netel(e), netle, nettle, from Germanic *nat-ilo, a nettle (nettles or plants of closely related genera such as hemp were used as a source of fiber);
    • c. ouch2, from Anglo-Norman nouch, brooch, from Germanic *nat-sk-.
  2. Lengthened o-grade form *nodo-. node, nodule, nodus, noil, noose; dénouement, from Latin nodus, a knot.
  3. With re-formation of the root. nexus; adnexa, annex, connect, from Latin nectere (past participle nexus), to tie, bind, connect.


DEFINITION: Death. Oldest form *nek-, becoming *nek- in centum languages.
Derivatives include nuisance, innocent, and nectarine.

  1. internecine, pernicious, from Latin nex (stem nec-), death.
  2. Suffixed (causative) o-grade form *nok-eyo-. nocent, nocuous, nuisance; innocent, innocuous, from Latin nocere, to injure, harm.
  3. Suffixed o-grade form *nok-s-. noxious; obnoxious, from Latin noxa, injury, hurt, damage entailing liability.
  4. Suffixed full-grade form *nek-ro-. necro-, necrosis; necromancy, from Greek nekros, corpse.
  5. nectar, nectarine, from Greek nektar, the drink of the gods, “overcoming death” (*tar-, overcoming; see ter-2).


DEFINITION: To reach, attain. Oldest form *ne-, becoming *nek- in centum languages.

  1. I. O-grade form *nok-. enough, from Old English genog, enough, from Germanic *ganoga-, sufficient, from *ga-nah, “suffices” (*ga-, intensive prefix; see kom).
  2. II. Variant form *enk-.
    • 1. oncogenesis, oncology, from Greek reduplicated enenkein, to carry (suppletive aorist of pherein, to carry; see bher-), with derived noun onkos, a burden, mass, hence a tumor (from suffixed o-grade *onk-o-; see 2 below).
    • 2. Suffixed o-grade form *onk-o-. baisa, paisa, pice, from Sanskrit amsah, part, portion.
  3. Compound root *bhrenk- (see bher1).


DEFINITION: Night. Probably from a verbal root *negw-, to be dark, be night. O-grade form *nokw-t-.

  1. a. night; fortnight, from Old English niht, neaht, night;
    • b. Kristallnacht, from Old High German naht, night. Both a and b from Germanic *naht-.
  2. nocti-, nocturn, nocturnal, equinox, from Latin nox (stem noct-), night.
  3. noctuid, noctule, from Latin noctua, night owl.
  4. nyctalopia, nyctitropism, from Greek nux (stem nukt-), night.
  5. Suffixed plain verbal root *negw-ro-. negro, niello, nigella, nigrescence, nigrosine; denigrate, streptonigrin, from Latin niger, black.


DEFINITION: To assign, allot; also to take.
Derivatives include numb, nemesis, and nomad.

  1. a. nim1, numb; benumb, from Old English niman, to take, seize;
    • b. nimble, from Old English naemel, quick to seize, and numol, quick at learning, seizing;
    • c. nim2, from Old High German nëman, to take. a–c all from Germanic *nem-.
  2. nemesis; economy, from Greek nemein, to allot.
  3. O-grade form *nom-.
    • a. lumma, nome, –nomy; anomie, antinomian, antinomy, astronomer, astronomy, autonomous, Deuteronomy, metronome, nomograph, nomology, nomothetic, numismatic, from Greek nomos, portion, usage, custom, law, division, district;
    • b. noma, from Greek nome, pasturage, grazing, hence a spreading, a spreading ulcer;
    • c. nomad, from Greek nomas, wandering in search of pasture;
    • d. nummular, nummulite, from Greek nomimos, legal.
  4. Perhaps suffixed o-grade form *nom-eso-. number, numeral; enumerate, innumerable, supernumerary, from Latin numerus, number, division.


DEFINITION: Under, also on the left; hence, with an eastward orientation, north. Suffixed zero-grade form *ni-t(r)o-.

  • a. Nordic, north


DEFINITION: Man; basic sense “vigorous, vital, strong.” Oldest root form *2ner-. andro-, –androus, –andry; philander, from Greek aner (stem andr-, from zero-grade form *nr-), man.


DEFINITION: To return safely home.

  1. harness, from Old French harneis, harness, possibly from a Germanic source akin to Old English, Old High German (in composition), and Old Norse nest, food for a journey, from Germanic *nes-tam.
  2. Suffixed o-grade form *nos-to-. nostalgia, from Greek nostos, a return home


DEFINITION: Oblique cases of the personal pronoun of the first person plural. For the nominative see we-.

  1. Zero-grade form *ns-. us, from Old English us, us (accusative), from Germanic *uns.
  2. Suffixed (possessive) zero-grade form *uns-ero-. our, ours, from Old English user, ure, our, from Germanic *unsara-.
  3. O-grade form *nos-, with suffixed (possessive) form *nos-t(e)ro-. Nostratic, nostrum; paternoster, from Latin nos, we, and noster, our.



  1. Suffixed forms *nogw-eto-, *nogw-oto-. naked, from Old English nacod, naked, from Germanic *nakweda-, *nakwada-.
  2. Suffixed form *nogw-edo-. nude, nudi-; denude, from Latin nudus, naked.
  3. Suffixed form *nogw-mo-. gymnasium, gymnast; gymnosophist, gymnosperm, from Greek gumnos, naked (with metathesis due to taboo deformation).
  4. Suffixed form *nogw-no-. naan, from Old Persian *nagna-, bare, naked.


DEFINITION: Also ongh-. Nail, claw. Oldest forms *3nogh-, *3ongh-.

  1. Suffixed (diminutive) form *nogh-elo-. nail, from Old English nægl, nail, from Germanic *nagla-.
  2. Form *nogh-. onyx; paronychia, perionychium, sardonyx, from Greek onux (stem onukh-), nail.
  3. Variant form *ongh-. unguiculate, unguis, ungulate, from Latin unguis, nail, claw, hoof, with diminutive ungula, hoof, claw, talon (< *ongh-ela-)


DEFINITION: Also ombh-. Navel; later also “central knob,” boss of a shield, hub of a wheel. Oldest form *3nobh-, variant *3ombh- (< *3onbh-).

  1. a. nave2, from Old English nafu, nafa, hub of a wheel;
    • b. auger, from Old English nafogar, auger, from Germanic compound *nabo-gaizaz, tool for piercing wheel hubs (*gaizaz, spear, piercing tool). Both a and b from Germanic *nabo.
  2. Variant form *ombh-. umbo, from Latin umbo, boss of a shield.
  3. Suffixed form *nobh-alo-. navel, from Old English nafela, navel, from Germanic *nabalo.
  4. Suffixed variant form *ombh-alo-.
    • a. umbilicus; nombril, from Latin umbilicus, navel;
    • b. omphalos, from Greek omphalos, navel



  1. nine, nineteen, ninety, ninth, from Old English nigon, nine, with derivatives nigontig, ninety, and nigontene, nineteen (-tene, ten; see dek), from Germanic *nigun, variant of *niwun.
  2. November, novena; nonagenarian, from Latin novem, nine (< *noven, with m for n by analogy with the m of septem, seven, and decem, ten).
  3. Ordinal form *neweno-. nona-, nones, noon; nonagon, nonanoic acid, from Latin nonus, ninth.
  4. Prothetic or prefixed forms *1new, *1nw. ennead, from Greek ennea, nine (< *ennewa, *enwa-).


DEFINITION: To shout. Suffixed (participial) o-grade form *now-ent-(yo-), “shouting.” nuncio; announce, denounce, enunciate, internuncio, pronounce, renounce, from Latin nuntius, “announcing,” hence a messenger, also a message, and nuntium, message.


DEFINITION: Grandson, nephew. Feminine *nepti-. nephew, nepotism, niece, from Latin nepos, grandson, nephew, and neptis, granddaughter, niece.

完了相は / n /と / t /の二つの音素がかかわるか。

  • / n /は 否定相から 消滅・完了相を派生する。nu :ヌ(成り行きの完了法の補充用言:夏は来ヌ。)
  • do-did-done や go-went-gone の過去分詞に現われる/ n /は 完了相を表わしてはいないか。
  • 同じく過去形の中の/ t(d) /なる音素は やはり完了相のように思われる。
  • / t /は 日本語で 不定相から放出・完了相を派生したと想定される。tu:ツ(人為的な動作の完了法・補充用言:童は見タリ。)
  • 来る・見る・to do・to goに/ n /が付けられると それぞれの動作が 同定された相を呈する。
  • / t(d) /の場合は 不定相で指示されたかたちか。あたかも 見るなら見るという動作がどこかへ行ってしまった相をつくるだろうか。